Kituba (mkw-mkw) = 3 (Wider communication). Statutory language of national identity (2002, Constitution, Article 6), recognized as lingua franca. Used throughout the south in churches, the market and the media. Established itself in large towns during colonial period between 1885 and 1960. Lingua franca in Bas-Congo, Kwango, Kwilu, Kinshasa, Mai-Ndombe and Kasai-Occidental.