Spoken L1 Language: Zimbabwean Ndebele

Comments on subclassification

Gunnink, Hilde and Natalia Chousou-Polydouri and Koen Bostoen 2022: 20-22 Ownby, Carolan Postma 1985

AES status:
not endangered
David M. Eberhard and Gary F. Simons and Charles D. Fennig 2024
Ndebele (nde-nde) = 3 (Wider communication). Recognized language (2013, Constitution, Article 6(1)). Offshoot of the Nguni language, Ndebele tribe broke away from the Zulu empire in the early 19th century. Gained vitality under the powerful indigenous kingdom of Mzilikazi in the 19th century. Used in daily life.
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