Spoken L1 Language: Kimbundu

Comments on subclassification

Jan Vansina 2004: 273-283 Bryan, Margaret Arminel 1959

AES status:
not endangered
David M. Eberhard and Gary F. Simons and Charles D. Fennig 2024
Kimbundu (kmb-kmb) = 3 (Wider communication). Established 15th century. Spread in northwestern Angola under Portuguese colonialism (16th century) and Methodist missionary influence (1880s).
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