Spoken L1 Language: Umbundu

Comments on subclassification

Elderkin, Edward D. 2003: 583 Jan Vansina 2004: 273-283

AES status:
not endangered
David M. Eberhard and Gary F. Simons and Charles D. Fennig 2024
Umbundu (umb-umb) = 3 (Wider communication). Trade language, particularly for slave and ivory trade, between Ovimbundu people and Portuguese settlers in 1700s. Beginning in 1874 used as church language with arrival of Catholic missionaries.
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