Spoken L1 Language: Umbundu

Comments on subclassification

Elderkin, Edward D. 2003: 583 Jan Vansina 2004: 273-283

AES status:
not endangered
David M. Eberhard and Gary F. Simons and Charles D. Fennig 2022
Umbundu (umb-umb) = 3 (Wider communication). Trade language, particularly for slave and ivory trade, between Ovimbundu people and Portuguese settlers in 1700’s. Beginning in 1874 used as church language with arrival of catholic missionaries. Spoken by one-third of the population of Angola.
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