Family: Atlantic-Congo

Family membership references
Comments on family membership

The core is held together by regular sound correspondences in lexical items between subfamily languages, less systematic verbal extensions and noun class systems Stewart, John M. 2002 , Stewart, John M. 2005 , Becher, Jutta 2002 , Mukarovsky, Hans G. 1976-1977 , Pozdniakov, Konstantin Igorevich and Segerer, Guillaume 2004 , Hyman, Larry M. 2007 Tom Güldemann 2018: 154-174 , 177-179, 180-189, 194-199, 200-213, 213-223, 223-231. Mande Tom Güldemann 2018: 189-192 , Kordofanian, Ijoid Tom Güldemann 2018: 174-177 and Dogon (cf. Tom Güldemann 2018: 192-193 ) have not yet been shown to stand up to these criteria wherefore they are excluded. Regarding Siamou, as Prost Prost, André 1964: 345 noted, apart from obvious loanwords, Siamou is neither Mande nor Gur. Contra Person, Yvonne 1966 , although there are typological matches, Simaou differs from Kru throughout the comparison, and Siamou can thus not be verified as a Kru language Zogbo, Lynell Marchese 2012 Tom Güldemann 2018: 177-180 . It lacks any of the diagnostic features of the Atlantic-Congo family and must thus be regarded as unrelated until such evidence is brought forward. The Pre or Mbre language in Côte d'Ivoire, known from wordlists only, is Atlantic-Congo but cannot be assigned to a specific branch at this time Blench, Roger 2006 , Boukari, Oumarou 2009 Tom Güldemann 2018: 180 . The Mpra (= Mpre) language in Ghana has cognates with Atlantic-Congo especially Guang Goody, Jack R. 1963 , including numerals 2-5, but the bulk of the little vocabulary that is known, is not Atlantic-Congo Blench, Roger 2012 . On the grounds that the numerals are less likely to be borrowed, and that lexical innovation may produce vocabulary that looks unrelated to anything else, we count Mpra as an Atlantic-Congo language.