Family: Atlantic-Congo


Family membership references
Comments on family membership

The core is held together by regular sound correspondences in lexical items between subfamily languages, less systematic verbal extensions and noun class systems (Stewart, John M. 2002), (Stewart, John M. 2005), (Becher, Jutta 2002), (Williamson, Kay and Blench, Roger 2000), (Mukarovsky, Hans G. 1976-1977), (Pozdniakov, Konstantin Igorevich and Segerer, Guillaume 2004), (Hyman, Larry M. 2007), (Holst, Jan Henrik 2007). Mande, Kordofanian, Ijoid and Dogon have not yet been shown to stand up to these criteria wherefore they are excluded. The Pre or Mbre language in Côte d'Ivoire, known from wordlists only, is Atlantic-Congo but cannot be assigned to a specific branch at this time (Blench, Roger 2006), (Boukari, Oumarou 2009). The Mpra (= Mpre) language in Ghana has cognates with Atlantic-Congo especially Guang (Goody, Jack R. 1963), including numerals 2-5, but the bulk of the little vocabulary that is known, is not Atlantic-Congo (Blench, Roger 2012). On the grounds that the numerals are less likely to be borrowed, and that lexical innovation may produce vocabulary that looks unrelated to anything else, we count Mpra as an Atlantic-Congo language.