Spoken L1 Language: Kuanyama

Comments on subclassification

Elderkin, Edward D. 2003: 583 Jan Vansina 2004: 273-283

AES status:
not endangered
David M. Eberhard and Gary F. Simons and Charles D. Fennig 2024
Oshiwambo (kua-kua) = 3 (Wider communication). De facto language of national identity. Original language of powerful Kwanyama kingdom of southern Angola and northern Namibia. Spread as language of conquest throughout colonial period until 1917. Currently used in eastern half of Kunene Province in church, market, business, and media domains.
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