Spoken L1 Language: Lingala

Comments on subclassification

Meeuwis, Michael 2010: 11-22

AES status:
not endangered
David M. Eberhard and Gary F. Simons and Charles D. Fennig 2019
Lingala (lin-lin) = 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in northwestern regions (2006, Constitution, Article 1(8)). Developed as a trade language around 1900 about halfway between Kinshasa and Kisangani. It then spread along the river, ultimately becoming entrenched in Kinshasa, where it has become the L1 of most people.
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