Spoken L1 Language: Kinshasa Lingala

Comments on subclassification

Meeuwis, Michael 2010: 11-22 Meeuwis, Michael 2013: 39-42

AES status:
not endangered
David M. Eberhard and Gary F. Simons and Charles D. Fennig 2023
Lingala (lin-lin) = 3 (Wider communication). Statutory language of national identity (2006, Constitution, Article 1(8)). Developed as a trade language around 1900 about halfway between Kinshasa and Kisangani. It then spread along the river, ultimately becoming entrenched in Kinshasa, where it has become the L1 of most people.
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