Spoken L1 Language: Hawaiian

Comments on subclassification

Wilson, William H. 2010

AES status:
Campbell, Lyle and Lee, Nala Huiying and Okura, Eve and Simpson, Sean and Ueki, Kaori 2022
Hawaiian (125-haw) = Severely Endangered (100 percent certain, based on the evidence available) (The Hawaiian known among native speakers is extremely endangered and under pressure from the overwhelming English-speaking communities of Kaua‘i County to conform to English and Pidgin... Although the churches and schools that serve the Ni‘ihau community have become the only venues left where Ni‘ihau speakers gather, families still speak the language at home, especially on Ni‘ihau. However, a significant number of children and young adults in the community are preferring to speak Pidgin or English over Hawaiian, and as these people grow up and become parents, they often prefer to speak English to their children, thus severing the linguistic ties that they were privileged to grow up with. Each choice to speak Pidgin or English over Hawaiian contributes to the destruction of the community of native speakers. This is how Kaua‘i residents ended up becoming English/Pidgin monoglots in the 20th century, as opposed to being multilingual, and the same thing is happening among the Ni‘ihau community today.)

(see NeSmith 2016)

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