Spoken L1 Language: Kedah-Perak Malay

Subclassification references
Comments on subclassification

Asmah Haji Omar 1985 Karl Anderbeck 2012 Tadmor, Uri 1995: 12-16

AES status:
not endangered
David M. Eberhard and Gary F. Simons and Charles D. Fennig 2024
Malay, Kedah (meo-meo) = 3 (Wider communication). Became the lingua franca of the state of Kedah in the late 1800s. Spoken by almost all Kedahans regardless of race. Used in trade and at home.
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