Spoken L1 Language: Upper Guinea Crioulo

Comments on subclassification

Ferraz, Luis Ivens 1987

AES status:
not endangered
David M. Eberhard and Gary F. Simons and Charles D. Fennig 2024
Guinea-Bissau Creole (pov-pov) = 3 (Wider communication). De facto language of national identity. Primary LWC in Guinea-Bissau. Developed as a trade language with the Portuguese during the colonial period. Has its origins in the Upper Guinea Creole that developed on Santiago island in Cabo Verde, spreading to the mainland and then to the Casamance region of Senegal and to all of Guinea-Bissau. Guinea-Bissau Creole is now an L2 that is actively supported by all ethnic groups in the country and used in most domains of public life outside of education. Has become a marker of national identity and solidarity.
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