Spoken L1 Language: Inku

Comments on subclassification

Charles Kieffer 1983

AES status:
David M. Eberhard and Gary F. Simons and Charles D. Fennig 2024
Inku (jat-jat) = 10 (Extinct).

E16/E17/E18/E19/E20/E21/E22/E23/E24/E25/E26/E27 has an entry Jakati [jat] which is said be to spoken by 29,300 people in Ukraine. The alternative names, which include 'Jat', the classification of the language as Indo-Aryan, and a note indicating 'nomadic' suggests that the denotation is an itinerant population with roots on the Indian subcontinent, i.e., 'Gypsy' in loose terminology. 29,300 is a plausible number of Gypsies, or Roma, in Ukraine related to the Roma in countries to the west, but these Roma speak and indentify as a variety of Vlax [rmy] ( Aleksej P. Barannikov 1934: 24-44 , Marushiakova, Elena and Vesselin Popov 2014 ). Thus their speech is already covered by the Vlax [rmy] entry, and, furthermore, they do not call themselves 'Jat' and are not called 'Jat' by others. Although they could not have reached Ukraine in such numbers as per the E16/E17/E18/E19/E20/E21/E22/E23/E24/E25/E26/E27 entry, several ethnically and linguistically different communities in Afghanistan are called 'Jat' ( Aparna Rao 1981 , Aparna Rao 1982 , Rao, Aparna 1995 ), and the entry may be a confused attempt to render one of them. At least two mother tongues (as opposed to speech registers) are securely attested among the Afghanistan 'Jat':s, both of which are missing from E16/E17/E18/E19/E20/E21/E22/E23/E24/E25/E26/E27. One may be called Afghanistan Ghorbat ( Rao, Aparna 1995: 74-81 ) and has a Persian grammar and a vocabulary from Persian, manipulated Persian, Indo-Aryan and other sources. The second may be called Inku ( Rao, Aparna 1995: 82-85 ) and is a language of the Lahnda group of Indo-Aryan, perhaps closest to E16/E17/E18/E19/E20/E21/E22/E23/E24/E25/E26/E27's Siraiki [skr] ( Charles Kieffer 1983 ). Thus, the E16/E17/E18/E19/E20/E21/E22/E23/E24/E25/E26/E27 Jakati [jat] entry is either spurious or erroneous (as to location and population) and ambiguous between the two Afghanistani Jat languages. See also: Saraiki [skr], Vlax Romani [rmy].

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