Rebecca Grollemund and Simon Branford and Koen Bostoen and Andrew Meade and Chris Venditti and Mark Pagel 2015

Rebecca Grollemund and Simon Branford and Koen Bostoen and Andrew Meade and Chris Venditti and Mark Pagel. 2015. Bantu expansion shows that habitat alters the route and pace of human dispersals. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 112. 13296-13301+1-5.

@article{474854,
  author     = {Rebecca Grollemund and Simon Branford and Koen Bostoen and Andrew Meade and Chris Venditti and Mark Pagel},
  journal    = {Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America},
  number     = {43},
  pages      = {13296-13301+1-5},
  title      = {Bantu expansion shows that habitat alters the route and pace of human dispersals},
  url        = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1503793112},
  volume     = {112},
  year       = {2015},
  abstract   = {Unlike most other biological species, humans can use cultural innovations to occupy a range of environments, raising the intriguing question of whether human migrations move relatively independently of habitat or show pBooks for familiar ones. The Bantu expansion that swept out of West Central Africa beginning ∼5,000 y ago is one of the most influential cultural events of its kind, eventually spreading over a vast geographical area a new way of life in which farming played an increasingly important role. We use a new dated phylogeny of ∼400 Bantu languages to show that migrating Bantu-speaking populations did not expand from their ancestral homeland in a "random walk" but, rather, followed emerging savannah corridors, with rainforest habitats repeatedly imposing temporal barriers to movement. When populations did move from savannah into rainforest, rates of migration were slowed, delaying the occupation of the rainforest by on average 300 y, compared with similar migratory movements exclusively within savannah or within rainforest by established rainforest populations. Despite unmatched abilities to produce innovations culturally, unfamiliar habitats significantly alter the route and pace of human dispersals.},
  bestfn     = {africa\grollemund_bantu2015v2_o.pdf},
  besttxt    = {ptxt2\africa\grollemund_bantu2015.txt},
  doi        = {10.1073/pnas.1503793112},
  fn         = {africa\grollemund_bantu2015v3_o.pdf, africa\grollemund_bantu2015.pdf, africa\grollemund_bantu2015v2_o.pdf, africa\grollemund_bantu2015_o.pdf},
  hhtype     = {overview;comparative},
  inlg       = {English [eng]},
  lgcode     = {Fefe_Grassfields = Fe'fe' [fmp], Mungaka_Grassfields = Mungaka [mhk], Bamun_Grassfields = Bamun [bax], Kom_Grassfields = Kom (Cameroon) [bkm], Oku_Grassfields = Oku [oku], Aghem_Grassfields = Aghem [agq], Njen_Grassfields = Njen [njj], Moghamo_Grassfields = Meta' [mgo], Tiv_Tivoid = Tiv [tiv], A11_Londo = Oroko [bdu], A121_Mbonge = Oroko [bdu], A122_Bakundu = Oroko [bdu], A141_Lefo = Bafaw-Balong [bwt], A15_Manenguba = Bakaka [bqz], A15A_Mbuu = Mbo (Cameroon) [mbo], A15B_Mienge_NW_Manenguba = Bassossi [bsi], A15C_Elung_Central_Manenguba = Akoose [bss], A15C_Akossi = Akoose [bss], A15C_Mkaa = Bakaka [bqz], A151_Nkongho = Nkongho [nkc], A22_Bakweri = Mokpwe [bri], A24_Duala = Duala [dua], A27_Malimba = Malimba [mzd], A31_Bubi = Bube [bvb], A32C_Batanga = Batanga [bnm], A33a_Yasa = Yasa [yko], A34_Benga = Benga [bng], A41_Barombi-Kang = Barombi [bbi], A42_Abo = Bankon [abb], A43a_Basaa = Basa (Cameroon) [bas], A44_Tunen = Tunen [tvu], A45_Nyokon = Nyokon [nvo], A46_Nomaande = Nomaande [lem], A462_Yambeta = Yambeta [yat], A51_Bafia_maja = Bafia [ksf], A53_Bafia_rikpa = Bafia [ksf], A54_Tibea = Tibea [ngy], A601_Tuki = Tuki [bag], A61_Ngoro-Asom = Bebele [beb] see Guarisma and Paulian 1986, A61_Ngoro-Bisoo = Eton [eto] see Guarisma and Paulian 1986, A61_Ngoro-lunda possibly Eton [eto] see Guarisma and Paulian 1986, A62A_Nuasue = Yangben [yav], A62A_Nukalonge = Yangben [yav], A62B_Mmala = Mmaala [mmu], A62C_Libie = Elip [ekm], A621_Nubaca = Nubaca [baf], A622_Nugunu = Nugunu (Cameroon) [yas], A63_Mangisa = Eton-Mengisa [eto], Zaambo_Jarawan = Mbula-Bwazza [mbu], Bwazza_Jarawan = Mbula-Bwazza [mbu], Mbula_Jarawan = Mbula-Bwazza [mbu], Bile_Jarawan = Bile [bil], Kulung_Jarawan = Kulung (Nigeria) [bbu], Duguri_Jarawan = Duguri [dbm], A71_Eton = Eton-Mengisa [eto], A72a_Ewondo = Ewondo [ewo], A74a_Bulu = Bulu (Cameroon) [bum], A75a_Fang_Bitam = Fang (Equatorial Guinea) [fan], A75a_Fang_Minvoul = Fang (Equatorial Guinea) [fan], A75a_Fang_Medouneu = Fang (Equatorial Guinea) [fan], A803_Shiwa = Shiwa [NOCODE_Shiwa], A81_Kwasio = Kwasio [nmg], A83_Mekaa = Makaa [mcp], A832_Bekol = Kol (Cameroon) [biw], A84_Njem = Njyem [njy], A841_Badwe = Koonzime [ozm], A85b_Bekwil_Makokou = Bekwil [bkw], A85b_Bekwil_Mv = Bekwil [bkw], A86c_Mpiemo = Mpiemo [mcx], A87_Bomwali = Bomwali [bmw], A91_Kwakum = Kwakum [kwu], A93_Kako = Kako [kkj], B11a_Mpongwe = Myene [mye], B11b_Orungu = Myene [mye], B11c_Galwa = Myene [mye], B11d_Dyumba = Myene [mye], B11F_Enenga = Myene [mye], B31_Tsogo = Tsogo [tsv], B32_Kande = Kande [kbs], B301_Viya = Viya [gev], B302_Himba = Simba [sbw], B304_Pinzi = Pinji [pic], B305_Vove = Bubi [buw], B21_Seki = Seki [syi], B22a_Kele = Kélé [keb], B22b_Ngom = Ngom [nra], B22b_Koya = Ngom [nra], B22E_Mwesa = Mwesa [NOCODE_Mwesa], B23_Mbangwe = Mbangwe [zmn], B24_Wumbvu = Wumbvu [wum], B25_Kota = Kota (Gabon) [koq], B251_Shake = Sake [sak], B252_Mahongwe = Mahongwe [mhb], B201_Ndasa = Ndasa [nda], B202_Sigu = Sighu [sxe], B203_Samaye = Osamayi [syx], B204_Ndambomo_Li = Ndambomo [nxo], B204_Ndambomo_Mbadi = Ndambomo [nxo], B204_Ndambomo_Massoukou = Ndambomo [nxo], C101_Babole_Ep taken from Leitch 2004 [1989] Epena (cf. Grollemund 2012) but this is Bomitaba (Nord) not Dibole = Bomitaba [zmx], C101_Babole_Ma = Dibole [bvx], C101_Babole_Dz = Dibole [bvx], C104_Aka = Yaka (Central African Republic) [axk], C105_Mbenga (presumably mislabeled as C105 since it fails to subgroup with C104_Aka) = This is probably Mbinga of Motingea Mangulu and Bonzoi Mwamakasa (2008) = Mabaale [mmz], C141_Bonyala = Mbosi [mdw], C15_Bongili = Bongili [bui], C21_Ngare = Mboko [mdu], C22_Akwa = Akwa [akw], C24_Koyo = Koyo [koh], C25_Mboshi = Mbosi [mdw], C25A_Bunji = Mbosi [mdw], C25B_Olee = Mbosi [mdw], C25C_Ondinga = Mbosi [mdw], C25E_Eboyi closest to Koyo [koh], C322_Zamba = Zamba [NOCODE_Zamba], C323_Mpama = Mpama [NOCODE_Mpama], C32_Bobangi = Bangi [bni], C34_Sakata = Sakata [skt], C36d_Lingala = Lingala [lin], C41_Ngombe = Ngombe (Democratic Republic of Congo) [ngc], C43A_Baati = Bwa [bww], C44_Bwa = Bwa [bww], C52_Soko = So (Democratic Republic of Congo) [soc], C55_Lokele = Kele-Foma [khy], C54_Turumba_1919 = Lombo [loo], C52_Soko_1919 = So (Democratic Republic of Congo) [soc], C61_Mongo = Mongo [lol], C61E_Konda = Mongo [lol], C71_Tetela = Tetela [tll], C76_Ombo = Ombo [oml], C81_Dengese = Dengese [dez], C85_Wongo = Wongo [won], C83_Bushong = Bushoong [buf], C302_Bolondo = Bolondo [bzm], C37_Ebudza = Budza [bja], C42_Ebwela = Bwela [bwl], C412_Libobi = Bamwe [bmg], C142_Mondongo = Bamwe [bmg], C36g_Monyongo = Bamwe [bmg], C36g_Mosange = Ndolo [ndl], C401_Pakabete = Pagibete [pae], C401_Babati_1919 = Bwa [bww], D11_Mbole = Mbole [mdq], D12_Lengola = Lengola [lej], D13_Metoko = Mituku [zmq], D14_Enya = Enya [gey], D20B_Vamba_1919 = Amba (Uganda) [rwm], D201_Liko = Liko [lik], D21_Baali = Bali (Democratic Republic of Congo) [bcp], D211_Kango = Kango (Tshopo District) [kzy], D23_Kibira-Kumu_1919 = Komo (Democratic Republic of Congo) [kmw], D24_Songola = Songoora [sod], D25_Lega = Lega-Shabunda [lea], D28_Holoholo = Holoholo [hoo], D304_Homa_1919 = Homa [hom], D305_Nyanga-li probably mislabeled because of the subgrouping and absense of data on the actual D305_Nyanga-li - language data is likely is Nyanga D43 [nyj], D311_Bila = Bila [bip], D331_Bvanuma = Vanuma [vau], D313_Mbuttu_1919 = Budu [buu], *D308_Ebodo groups with Nyali so is D35 Bodo = Budu [buu], D308_Bodo2 groups with Nyali so is D35 Bodo = Budu [buu], D32_Bira from unpublished data by Didier Démolin (cf. Grollemund 2012) which however subgroups with Bila (and Kango) so must be Bila [bip], D32_Bira_Bunia = Bera [brf], D33_Nyali = Nyali [nlj], D333_Ndaaka = Ndaka [ndk], D334_Mbo = Mbo (Democratic Republic of Congo) [zmw], D43_Nyanga = Nyanga [nyj], D55_Buyu = Buyu [byi], B41_Shira = Sira [swj], B42_Sangu_Mi = Sangu (Gabon) [snq], B42_Sangu_Mb = Sangu (Gabon) [snq], B43_Punu = Punu [puu], B44_Lumbu = Lumbu [lup], B404_Ngubi = Ngubi [NOCODE_Ngubi], B51_Duma = Duma [dma], B51_Duma_La = Duma [dma], B52_Nzebi = Njebi [nzb], B53_Tsaangi_Poungi = Tsaangi [tsa], B501_Wanzi_E = Wandji [wdd], B501_Wanzi_Mo = Wandji [wdd], B503_Vili = Vili of Ngounie [NOCODE_Vili], B62_Mbaama = Ombamba = Mbere [mdt], B63_Ndumu = Ndumu [nmd], B601_Lempini = Ombamba = Mbere [mdt], B602_Kaningi_Nord = Kaningi [kzo], B602_Kaningi_Sud = Kaningi [kzo], B71a_Teke_Os = Teke-Tege [teg], B71a_Teke_Dj = Teke-Tege [teg], B71aIb_Teke_Ibali_Congo = Ibali Teke [tek], B71aLe_Teke_Leconi = Teke-Tege [teg], B701_Atsitsege = Tsitsege [tck], B77b_Fumu = Teke-Fuumu [ifm], B78_Wuumu = Wuumu-Mpuono [NOCODE_Wuumu-Mpuono], B81_Tiene = Tiene [tii], B85d_Nsongo = Songo [soo], B86_Dzing = Ding [diz], B865_Nzadi = Nzadi [nzd], B861_Ngul = Ngul [nlo], B82_Buma = Boma Nord [NOCODE_Boma-Nord], B86_Dinga = Ding [diz], B84_Mbunda should be B87 = Mbuun [zmp], B85_Yanzi = Yansi [yns], B85e_Mput closest to Ding [diz], B862_Lwel = Lwel [NOCODE_Lwel], B864_Ngong = Ngongo [noq], B863_Pindi = Mpiin = Nsong [soo], H11_Beembe = Beembe [beq], H111_Hangala = Laari [ldi], H12_Civili_Congo = Vili [vif], H16_Kikongo = South-Central Kikongo [kng], H16c_Yombe should be H12 = Vili [vif], H16f_Laadi = Laari [ldi], H16g_Ntandu = Eastern Kikongo [NOCODE_Eastern-Kikongo], H31_Yaka = Yaka-Pelende-Lonzo [yaf], H321_Soonde = Sonde [shc], H32_Suku = Suku [sub], H41_Mbala = Mbala [mdp], H42_Hunganna = Hungana [hum], H16a_Kisikongo_2013 = South-Central Kikongo [kng], H16a_Kisolongo_DRC_2012 = South-Central Kikongo [kng], H16b_Kindibu_2013 = South-Central Kikongo [kng], H16g_Kimpangu_2012 = Eastern Kikongo [NOCODE_Eastern-Kikongo], H16h_Kinkanu_2012 = Eastern Kikongo [NOCODE_Eastern-Kikongo], H16d_Ciwoyo_DRC_2012 = Western Kikongo [kwy], H16c_Kiyombe_DRC_1982 = Yombe [yom], H13_Kikunyi_1989 = Kunyi [njx], H131_Kisundi_Congo_Kimongo_1988 = Suundi [sdj], H21a_Kimbundu = Kimbundu [kmb], H16_Cizobe = Yombe [yom], H16_Kimbata_Ngidinga = Eastern Kikongo [NOCODE_Eastern-Kikongo], H16_Kimbeko = Eastern Kikongo [NOCODE_Eastern-Kikongo], H16_Cimbala = Kimbala = Yombe [yom], H16_Cilinji = Yombe [yom], L11_Pende = Phende [pem], L13_Kwese = Kwese [kws], L23_Songe = Songe [sop], L31a_Luba-Kasai = Luba-Lulua [lua], L32_Kanyok = Kanyok [kny], L34_Hemba = Hemba-Yazi [hem], L35_Sanga = Sanga (Democratic Republic of Congo) [sng], L41_Kaonde = Kaonde [kqn], L51_Salampasu = Salampasu [slx], L52_Lunda = Lunda [lun], K11_Ciokwe = Chokwe [cjk], K14_Lwena = Luvale [lue], K15_Mbunda = Mbunda [mck], K21_Lozi = Lozi [loz], K31_Luyana = Luyi [lyn], K33_Kwangali = Kwangali [kwn], K332_Rumanyo = Diriku [diu], R11_Umbundu = Umbundu [umb], R21_Kwanyama = Kuanyama [kua], R22_Ndonga = Ndonga [ndo], R31_Herero = Herero [her], L12b_Holu = Holu [hol], L53_Runda = Ruund [rnd], L221_Lwalwa = Lwalu [lwa], L33_Luba-Shaba = Luba-Katanga [lub], L62_Nkoya = Nkoya [nka], JD53_Shi = Shi [shr], JD62_Rundi = Rundi [run], JD64_Shubi = Shubi [suj], JD65_Hangaza = Hangaza [han], JD66_Kiha = Ha [haq], JD67_Kivinza = Vinza [vin], JE11_Runyoro = Nyoro [nyo], JE12_Rutooro = Tooro [ttj], JE13_Runyankore = Nyankole [nyn], JE14_Rukiga = Chiga [cgg], JE15_Luganda = Ganda [lug], JE16_Lusoga = Soga [xog], JE17_Gwere = Gwere [gwr], JE21_Runyambo = Nyambo [now], JE22_Haya = Haya [hay], JE23_Zinza = Zinza [zin], JE24_Kerebe = Kerewe [ked], JE25_Jita = Jita [jit], JE25_Kilegi = Kara (Tanzania) [reg], JE25_Mkwaya = Kwaya [kya], JE31_Lumasaaba = Masaaba [myx], JE31c_Bukusu = Bukusu [bxk], JE32_Luyia might be Saamia [lsm], JE34_Samialugwe = Saamia [lsm], JE401_Ngoreme = Ngurimi [ngq], JE403_Suba = Suba [sxb], JE41_Maragoli = Logooli [rag], JE42_Gusii = Gusii [guz], JE43_Kuria = Kuria [kuj], JE43_Kuria_Mago = Kuria [kuj], JE43_Kuria_Tari = Kuria [kuj], JE44_Zanaki = Zanaki [zak], JE404_Shasi = Ikizu [ikz], JE402_Ikizu = Ikizu [ikz], JE45_Nata = Ikoma-Nata [ntk], E46_Sonjo = Temi [soz], E51_Kikuyu = Kikuyu [kik], E52_Embu = Embu [ebu], E52_Mbeere = Embu [ebu], E53_Meru = Meru [mer], E53_Igoji = Meru [mer], E53_Miutini = Meru [mer], E53_Imenti = Meru [mer], E53_Tigania = Meru [mer], E53_Meruimenti = Meru [mer], E53_Merutig = Meru [mer], E531_Muthambi = Mwimbi-Muthambi [mws], E531_Mwimbi = Mwimbi-Muthambi [mws], E54_Tharaka = Tharaka [thk], E541_Chuka = Chuka [cuh], E55_Kamba = Kamba (Kenya) [kam], E55_Kamba_Mach = Kamba (Kenya) [kam], E55_Kamba_Kitu = Kamba (Kenya) [kam], E56_Daiso = Dhaiso [dhs], E622C_Lema = Vunjo [vun], E621B_Machame = Machame [jmc], E621C_Siha = Machame [jmc], E621D_Kibosho = Machame [jmc], E622A_Kimochi = Mochi [old], E622C_Mamba = Vunjo [vun], E623D_Keni = Rombo [rof], E622C_Vunjo = Vunjo [vun], E623A_Kiseri = Rombo [rof], E623_Mkuu = Rombo [rof], E64_Kahe = Kahe [hka], E65_Gweno = Gweno [gwe], E701_Elwana = Ilwana [mlk], E71A_Upper_Pokomo = Pokomo [pkb], E72a_Giryama = Giryama [nyf], E73_Digo = Digo [dig], E74a_Dawida = Taita [dav], E74a_Tuveta = Taveta [tvs], F12_Bende = Bende [bdp], F21_Ntuzu = Sukuma [suk], F21_Sukuma = Sukuma [suk], F22_Nyamwezi = Nyamwezi [nym], F23_Sumbwa = Sumbwa [suw], F24_Kimbu = Kimbu [kiv], F25_Bungu = Bungu [wun], F31_Nyiramba = Nilamba [nim], F32_Nyaturucha = Nyaturu [rim], F32_Nyaturuwil = Nyaturu [rim], F33_Langi = Langi [lag], G11_Gogo = Gogo [gog], G12_Kagulu = Kagulu [kki], G22_Asu = Asu (Tanzania) [asa], G22A_North_Pare = Asu (Tanzania) [asa], G22B_South_Pare = Asu (Tanzania) [asa], G23_Sambaa = Shambala [ksb], G24_Bondei = Bondei [bou], G32_Doe = Doe [doe], G31_Zigua = Zigula [ziw], G32_Kwere = Kwere [cwe], G33_Zaramo = Zaramo [zaj], G34_Nguungulu = Ngulu [ngp], G35_Luguru = Luguru [ruf], G36_Kami = Kami (Tanzania) [kcu], G37_Kutu = Kutu [kdc], G39_Saghala = Sagala [sbm], G401_Mwani = Mwani [wmw], G41_Bajuni = Swahili [swh], G412_Mwiini = Chimwiini [NOCODE_Chimwiini], G42_Swahili = Swahili [swh], G42a_Amu = Swahili [swh], G42d_Unguja = Swahili [swh], G43_Kae = Swahili [swh], G44a_Ngazija = Ngazidja Comorian [zdj], G44b_Ndzwani = Ndzwani Comorian [wni], G44D_Maore = Maore Comorian [swb], G51_Pogoro = Pogolo [poy], G52_Ndamba = Ndamba [ndj], G61_Sangu = Sangu (Tanzania) [sbp], G62_Hehe = Hehe [heh], G63_Bena = Bena (Tanzania) [bez], G64_Pangwa = Pangwa [pbr], G65_Kinga = Kinga [zga], G66_Wanji = Vwanji [wbi], M11_Pimbwe = Pimbwe [piw], M12_Lungwa = Rungwa [rnw], M13_Fipa = Fipa [fip], M14_Rungu = Mambwe-Lungu [mgr], M15_Mambwe = Mambwe-Lungu [mgr], M21_Ndali = Ndali [ndh], M21_Wanda = Wanda [wbh], M22_Namwanga = Nyamwanga [mwn], M23_Nyiha = Nyiha (Tanzania) [nih], M24_Malila = Malila [mgq], M25_Safwa = Safwa [sbk], M28_Lambya = Lambya [lai], M31_Nyakyusa = Nyakyusa-Ngonde [nyy], M42_Bemba = Bemba (Zambia) [bem], M41_Taabwa = Taabwa [tap], M52_Lala = Lala-Bisa [leb], M54_Lamba = Lamba [lam], M61_Lenje = Lenje [leh], M62_Soli = Soli [sby], M64_Tonga = Tonga [toi], N11_Manda = Manda-Matumba [mgs], N12_Ngoni = Tanzanian Ngoni [xnj], N13_Matengo = Matengo [mgv], N14_Mpoto = Mpoto [mpa], N21_Tumbuka_Malawi = Tumbuka [tum], N31_Chewa = Nyanja [nya], N42_Kunda = Chikunda [kdn], P11_Ndengeleko = Ndengereko [ndg], P12_Rufiji = Ndengereko [ndg], P13_Matumbi = Matumbi [mgw], P14_Ngindo = Ngindo [nnq], P15_Mbunga = Mbunga [mgy], P21_Yao = Yao [yao], P22_Mwera = Mwera (Chimwera) [mwe], P23_Simakonde = Makonde [kde], P25_Mabia = Makonde [kde], P31_Emakhua = Makhuwa [vmw], P31G_Ikorovere = Makhuwa-Meetto [mgh], S11_Shona = Shona [sna], S16_Kalanga = Kalanga [kck], S21_Venda = Venda [ven], S31_Tswana = Tswana [tsn], S311_Shekgalagari = Kgalagadi [xkv], S41_Xhosa = Xhosa [xho], S42_Zulu = Zulu [zul], S44_Ndebele because of its placement in the tree (nearest sister of Zulu) is probably a mislabeled S407 nbl South Ndebele = Zulu [zul], S51_Tshwa = Tswa [tsc], S53_Tsonga = Tsonga [tso]},
  macro_area = {Africa},
  src        = {dplace, evobib, hh}
}

Languages

Name in source Glottolog languoid
Fefe_Grassfields
Mungaka_Grassfields
Bamun_Grassfields
Kom_Grassfields
Oku_Grassfields
Aghem_Grassfields
Njen_Grassfields
Moghamo_Grassfields
Tiv_Tivoid
A11_Londo
A121_Mbonge
A122_Bakundu
A141_Lefo
A15_Manenguba
A15A_Mbuu
A15B_Mienge_NW_Manenguba
A15C_Elung_Central_Manenguba
A15C_Akossi
A15C_Mkaa
A151_Nkongho
A22_Bakweri
A24_Duala
A27_Malimba
A31_Bubi
A32C_Batanga
A33a_Yasa
A34_Benga
A41_Barombi-Kang
A42_Abo
A43a_Basaa
A44_Tunen
A45_Nyokon
A46_Nomaande
A462_Yambeta
A51_Bafia_maja
A53_Bafia_rikpa
A54_Tibea
A601_Tuki
A61_Ngoro-Asom see Guarisma and Paulian 1986]
A61_Ngoro-Bisoo see Guarisma and Paulian 1986]
A61_Ngoro-lunda possibly Eton see Guarisma and Paulian 1986]
A62A_Nuasue
A62A_Nukalonge
A62B_Mmala
A62C_Libie
A621_Nubaca
A622_Nugunu
A63_Mangisa
Zaambo_Jarawan
Bwazza_Jarawan
Mbula_Jarawan
Bile_Jarawan
Kulung_Jarawan
Duguri_Jarawan
A71_Eton
A72a_Ewondo
A74a_Bulu
A75a_Fang_Bitam
A75a_Fang_Minvoul
A75a_Fang_Medouneu
A803_Shiwa
A81_Kwasio
A83_Mekaa
A832_Bekol
A84_Njem
A841_Badwe
A85b_Bekwil_Makokou
A85b_Bekwil_Mv
A86c_Mpiemo
A87_Bomwali
A91_Kwakum
A93_Kako
B11a_Mpongwe
B11b_Orungu
B11c_Galwa
B11d_Dyumba
B11F_Enenga
B31_Tsogo
B32_Kande
B301_Viya
B302_Himba
B304_Pinzi
B305_Vove
B21_Seki
B22a_Kele
B22b_Ngom
B22b_Koya
B22E_Mwesa
B23_Mbangwe
B24_Wumbvu
B25_Kota
B251_Shake
B252_Mahongwe
B201_Ndasa
B202_Sigu
B203_Samaye
B204_Ndambomo_Li
B204_Ndambomo_Mbadi
B204_Ndambomo_Massoukou
C101_Babole_Ep taken from Leitch 2004 [1989] Epena (cf. Grollemund 2012) but this is Bomitaba (Nord) not Dibole = Bomitaba
C101_Babole_Ma
C101_Babole_Dz
C104_Aka
C105_Mbenga (presumably mislabeled as C105 since it fails to subgroup with C104_Aka) = This is probably Mbinga of Motingea Mangulu and Bonzoi Mwamakasa (2008)
C141_Bonyala
C15_Bongili
C21_Ngare
C22_Akwa
C24_Koyo
C25_Mboshi
C25A_Bunji
C25B_Olee
C25C_Ondinga
C25E_Eboyi closest to Koyo
C322_Zamba
C323_Mpama
C32_Bobangi
C34_Sakata
C36d_Lingala
C41_Ngombe
C43A_Baati
C44_Bwa
C52_Soko
C55_Lokele
C54_Turumba_1919
C52_Soko_1919
C61_Mongo
C61E_Konda
C71_Tetela
C76_Ombo
C81_Dengese
C85_Wongo
C83_Bushong
C302_Bolondo
C37_Ebudza
C42_Ebwela
C412_Libobi
C142_Mondongo
C36g_Monyongo
C36g_Mosange
C401_Pakabete
C401_Babati_1919
D11_Mbole
D12_Lengola
D13_Metoko
D14_Enya
D20B_Vamba_1919
D201_Liko
D21_Baali
D211_Kango
D23_Kibira-Kumu_1919
D24_Songola
D25_Lega
D28_Holoholo
D304_Homa_1919
D305_Nyanga-li probably mislabeled because of the subgrouping and absense of data on the actual D305_Nyanga-li - language data is likely is Nyanga D43
D311_Bila
D331_Bvanuma
D313_Mbuttu_1919
*D308_Ebodo groups with Nyali so is D35 Bodo
D308_Bodo2 groups with Nyali so is D35 Bodo
D32_Bira from unpublished data by Didier Démolin (cf. Grollemund 2012) which however subgroups with Bila (and Kango) so must be Bila
D32_Bira_Bunia
D33_Nyali
D333_Ndaaka
D334_Mbo
D43_Nyanga
D55_Buyu
B41_Shira
B42_Sangu_Mi
B42_Sangu_Mb
B43_Punu
B44_Lumbu
B404_Ngubi
B51_Duma
B51_Duma_La
B52_Nzebi
B53_Tsaangi_Poungi
B501_Wanzi_E
B501_Wanzi_Mo
B503_Vili
B62_Mbaama = Ombamba
B63_Ndumu
B601_Lempini = Ombamba
B602_Kaningi_Nord
B602_Kaningi_Sud
B71a_Teke_Os
B71a_Teke_Dj
B71aIb_Teke_Ibali_Congo
B71aLe_Teke_Leconi
B701_Atsitsege
B77b_Fumu
B78_Wuumu
B81_Tiene
B85d_Nsongo
B86_Dzing
B865_Nzadi
B861_Ngul
B82_Buma
B86_Dinga
B84_Mbunda should be B87
B85_Yanzi
B85e_Mput closest to Ding
B862_Lwel
B864_Ngong
B863_Pindi = Mpiin
H11_Beembe
H111_Hangala
H12_Civili_Congo
H16_Kikongo
H16c_Yombe should be H12
H16f_Laadi
H16g_Ntandu
H31_Yaka
H321_Soonde
H32_Suku
H41_Mbala
H42_Hunganna
H16a_Kisikongo_2013
H16a_Kisolongo_DRC_2012
H16b_Kindibu_2013
H16g_Kimpangu_2012
H16h_Kinkanu_2012
H16d_Ciwoyo_DRC_2012
H16c_Kiyombe_DRC_1982
H13_Kikunyi_1989
H131_Kisundi_Congo_Kimongo_1988
H21a_Kimbundu
H16_Cizobe
H16_Kimbata_Ngidinga
H16_Kimbeko
H16_Cimbala = Kimbala
H16_Cilinji
L11_Pende
L13_Kwese
L23_Songe
L31a_Luba-Kasai
L32_Kanyok
L34_Hemba
L35_Sanga
L41_Kaonde
L51_Salampasu
L52_Lunda
K11_Ciokwe
K14_Lwena
K15_Mbunda
K21_Lozi
K31_Luyana
K33_Kwangali
K332_Rumanyo
R11_Umbundu
R21_Kwanyama
R22_Ndonga
R31_Herero
L12b_Holu
L53_Runda
L221_Lwalwa
L33_Luba-Shaba
L62_Nkoya
JD53_Shi
JD62_Rundi
JD64_Shubi
JD65_Hangaza
JD66_Kiha
JD67_Kivinza
JE11_Runyoro
JE12_Rutooro
JE13_Runyankore
JE14_Rukiga
JE15_Luganda
JE16_Lusoga
JE17_Gwere
JE21_Runyambo
JE22_Haya
JE23_Zinza
JE24_Kerebe
JE25_Jita
JE25_Kilegi
JE25_Mkwaya
JE31_Lumasaaba
JE31c_Bukusu
JE32_Luyia might be Saamia
JE34_Samialugwe
JE401_Ngoreme
JE403_Suba
JE41_Maragoli
JE42_Gusii
JE43_Kuria
JE43_Kuria_Mago
JE43_Kuria_Tari
JE44_Zanaki
JE404_Shasi
JE402_Ikizu
JE45_Nata
E46_Sonjo
E51_Kikuyu
E52_Embu
E52_Mbeere
E53_Meru
E53_Igoji
E53_Miutini
E53_Imenti
E53_Tigania
E53_Meruimenti
E53_Merutig
E531_Muthambi
E531_Mwimbi
E54_Tharaka
E541_Chuka
E55_Kamba
E55_Kamba_Mach
E55_Kamba_Kitu
E56_Daiso
E622C_Lema
E621B_Machame
E621C_Siha
E621D_Kibosho
E622A_Kimochi
E622C_Mamba
E623D_Keni
E622C_Vunjo
E623A_Kiseri
E623_Mkuu
E64_Kahe
E65_Gweno
E701_Elwana
E71A_Upper_Pokomo
E72a_Giryama
E73_Digo
E74a_Dawida
E74a_Tuveta
F12_Bende
F21_Ntuzu
F21_Sukuma
F22_Nyamwezi
F23_Sumbwa
F24_Kimbu
F25_Bungu
F31_Nyiramba
F32_Nyaturucha
F32_Nyaturuwil
F33_Langi
G11_Gogo
G12_Kagulu
G22_Asu
G22A_North_Pare
G22B_South_Pare
G23_Sambaa
G24_Bondei
G32_Doe
G31_Zigua
G32_Kwere
G33_Zaramo
G34_Nguungulu
G35_Luguru
G36_Kami
G37_Kutu
G39_Saghala
G401_Mwani
G41_Bajuni
G412_Mwiini
G42_Swahili
G42a_Amu
G42d_Unguja
G43_Kae
G44a_Ngazija
G44b_Ndzwani
G44D_Maore
G51_Pogoro
G52_Ndamba
G61_Sangu
G62_Hehe
G63_Bena
G64_Pangwa
G65_Kinga
G66_Wanji
M11_Pimbwe
M12_Lungwa
M13_Fipa
M14_Rungu
M15_Mambwe
M21_Ndali
M21_Wanda
M22_Namwanga
M23_Nyiha
M24_Malila
M25_Safwa
M28_Lambya
M31_Nyakyusa
M42_Bemba
M41_Taabwa
M52_Lala
M54_Lamba
M61_Lenje
M62_Soli
M64_Tonga
N11_Manda
N12_Ngoni
N13_Matengo
N14_Mpoto
N21_Tumbuka_Malawi
N31_Chewa
N42_Kunda
P11_Ndengeleko
P12_Rufiji
P13_Matumbi
P14_Ngindo
P15_Mbunga
P21_Yao
P22_Mwera
P23_Simakonde
P25_Mabia
P31_Emakhua
P31G_Ikorovere
S11_Shona
S16_Kalanga
S21_Venda
S31_Tswana
S311_Shekgalagari
S41_Xhosa
S42_Zulu
S44_Ndebele because of its placement in the tree (nearest sister of Zulu) is probably a mislabeled S407 nbl South Ndebele
S51_Tshwa
S53_Tsonga