Spoken L1 Language: Wilson River (Grey Range)

Comments on subclassification

Gavan Breen 2007 Claire Bowern 2010 Claire Bowern and Quentin Atkinson 2012: 832-833

AES status:
Campbell, Lyle and Lee, Nala Huiying and Okura, Eve and Simpson, Sean and Ueki, Kaori 2022
Wangkumara (6803-xwk) = Awakening; Punthamara (6722-xpt) = Dormant

Retired in ISO 639-3: Split into Eastern Karnic [ekc], Garlali [gll], Punthamara [xpt], Wangkumara [xwk], and Badjiri [jbi]

  • Change request: 2012-077
  • ISO 639-3: nbx
  • Name: Ngura
  • Reason: split
  • Effective: 2013-01-23

Excerpt from change request document:

There are 11 dialects listed under the existing Ngura nbx code. Dr. Bowern suggests they be understood as follows:

Dr. Bowern supports the theory proposed that "Wurm and Hattori (1981) list the dialects as separate languages", as cited in the ethnologue entry for Ngura, as far as these four listed varieties go. Dr. Bowern suggests that Punthamara, Garlali, Wangkumara, Badjiri, and Eastern Karnic be listed as separate languages under a Ngura macrolanguage with the existing nbx code (if the nbx code must be retired, please list all these under the Ngura sub-family 190-16 since nbx will effectively be redundant).

The remaining dialects under the existing nbx code--Bidjara, Mambangura, Mingbari, Ngurawarla, Yarumarra--should be listed as dialects of a new code, Eastern Karnic.

Note Dhiraila and Karendala (Garandala) are NOT dialects in any sense, they should be listed as alternate names of Eastern Karnic.

We believe that Dr. Bowern's research and expertise on languages of Australia, as well as the support of the sources listed below are sufficient to define these as distinct languages.

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