Language: Karipúna


Comments on subclassification

Ana Maria Gouveia Cavalcanti Aguilar 2017

A major confusion in E16/E17/E18/E19 is with the languages called Karipuna. In addition to Karipuna Creole French [kmv] (an entry which is correct), there are two entries, both classified as Tupi-Guarani, Subgroup VI:

Karipúna [kgm] Karipuna [kuq]
Region: Amapá, on French Guiana border Rondônia, Acre, banks of Jaru, Jamery, Urupa, Cabecciras, Candeias, and Jaciparana rivers.
Classification: Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Subgroup VI Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Subgroup VI
Alternate names: Karipúna do Amapá, Karipúna do Uaçá Caripuna, Jau-Navo, Juanauo, Kagwahiva, Karipuná de Rondônia, Karipuná do Guaporé
Population: Extinct. 14 (2004 ISA).
Language use: Shifted to Karipúna Creole French [kmv]. Some may also use Tenharim [pah]

Early references to the Karipuna (or similar names) of Amapá refer to a variety of Palikúr [plu] ( Dominique Gallois and Carlos Alberto Ricardo 1983: 62 ). The language of the Karipuna of Amapá in this sense is attested with a short wordlist, and is indeed a Palikúr [plu] variety ( Čestmír Loukotka 1963 ). More recent references to the Karipuna of Amapá refer to an immigrant group whose original language is not attested, but, is reported to have been Nheengatu [yrl] ( Expedito Arnaud 1969 , Dominique Gallois and Carlos Alberto Ricardo 1983: 62 ). Except for the classification and the fact that Nheengatu [yrl] already has an entry, the Karipúna [kgm] entry is consistent with referring to the more recent Karipuna of Amapá. Thus, whatever it refers to, the same language already has a different E16/E17/E18/E19 entry, either Palikur [plu] or Nheengatu [yrl].

Until the 1950s ( Mauro Leonel 1995: 40-45 , 199-213) the only language called Karipuna in the Madeira-Guaporé region was a Panoan language also known as Jau-Navo, amply attested in wordlists ( Rondon, Cándido M. S. and de Faria, João Barbosa 1948 , de Créqui-Montfort, G. and Paul Rivet 1913 , von Martius, Carl Friedrich Philip 1867 , Hanke, Wanda 1949 ). However, the name started to be applied to groups of hostile indians at the Mutumparaná and Jaciparaná which were contacted in the 1950-1970s ( Klaus-Peter Kästner 2005: 104 ) and turned out to speak a Tupi-Guarani language of Subgroup VI ( Mello, Antônio Augusto Souza 2000 , Monserrat, Ruth Fonini 2000 , Betts, LaVera 2012 ), which we may call Kawahib. FUNAI frivolously used the name Karipuna for this Kawahib group ( Mauro Leonel 1995: 45 ), encouraging the confusion we now observe. The Karipuna [kuq] entry mixes information from the Panoan Karipuna (e.g., the name Jau-Navo) and the Kawahib Karipuna (e.g., the classification). The Panoan Karipuna is otherwise missing from E16/E17/E18/E19 whereas the Kawahib Karipuna speak the same language as the language of several other entries. See also: Tenharim [pah].


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