Spoken L1 Language: Imbabura Highland Quichua

Comments on subclassification

Carpenter, Lawrence Kidd 1982: 41-43 Parks, Roger 1990: 88 Louisa R. Stark 1985: 181-184

AES status:
Campbell, Lyle and Lee, Nala Huiying and Okura, Eve and Simpson, Sean and Ueki, Kaori 2022
Highland Ecuadorian Quichua (10851) = Vulnerable (80 percent certain, based on the evidence available) (Calderón [qud]: "shifting"; home, all ages. Cañar Highland Quichua [qxr]: "threatened"; "Strong use of Quichua away from the road." Chimborazo [qug]: "developing" Imbabura Quichua [qvi]: Vigorous. All ages. Loja [qvj]: "moribund"; Mainly older adults. Positive attitude. Northern Pastaza Quichua [qvz]: "threatened"; Home, community, religion. All ages. Negative attitudes. Most also use Spanish [spa]. Used as L2 by Achuar-Shiwiar [acu], Waorani [auc]. Salasca [qxl]: Home, community, agriculture. All ages. Positive attitude. Napo Quichua [qvo]: "developing". (Cotopaxi Quichua is not included as an entry in Ethnologue))

(see Lewis et al. 2017)

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