Spoken L1 Language: Ulwa (Papua New Guinea)

Comments on subclassification

Laycock, Donald C. 1973 Barlow, Russell 2018: 34-44 Russell Barlow 2020: 8-9

AES status:
Campbell, Lyle and Lee, Nala Huiying and Okura, Eve and Simpson, Sean and Ueki, Kaori 2022
Ulwa (10509-yla) = Severely Endangered (100 percent certain, based on the evidence available) (The language is not being transmitted to children. Most people older than 30 are fluent in the language, but nevertheless mostly use Tok Pisin in all domains. Some elders regularly use Ulwa, but even among this demographic there are no monolinguals, and elders rely heavily on Tok Pisin as well. People in their 20s tend to understand the language, but are unable to speak it. People younger than 20 may understand a few words, but cannot comprehend or produce even basic sentences.)

(see Barlow 2015)

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