Language: Xoco


Ethnologue (editions 16-19) has two entries Karirí-Xocó [kzw] and Xukurú [xoo], with the following information:

Karirí-Xocó [kzw] Xukurú [xoo]
Dialects: Kipeá (Quipea), Kamurú (Camuru), Dzubukuá (Dzubucua), Sabujá (Pedra Branca). Other dialects or languages are even less well attested.
Region: Alagoas. Pernambuco, Serra de Urubá (Arobá) near Cimbres City, Bahía.
Classification: Unclassified Unclassified
Language development: Grammar.
country: Brazil Brazil
Alternate names: Karirí, Kariri Xucó, Kipeá, Xocó, Xokó, Xokó-Karirí, Xukurú, Xukuru Kariri Kirirí, Kirirí-Xokó
Population: No known speakers. Ethnic population: 1,062 (1995 SIL). No known speakers. Ethnic population: 6,363.
Language use: Shifted to Portuguese. Shifted to Portuguese.

The are (at least) three attested languages relevant for these two entries. The first, which we may call Kipeá-Dzubukuá, is a dialect complex consisting of Dzubukuá, Kipeá, Kamurú (Camuru), Sabujá for which Jesuits grammars/catechisms are the main source of documentation. Quite a lot is known about Kipeá-Dzubukuá grammar, i.e., noun classes, VSO constituent order, ergativity and so on ( Mamiani, Luis Vincencio 1877 [1699] , de Azevedo, Gilda Maria Corrêa 1965 , Lucien Adam 1897 , Larsen, Thomas W. 1984 , Aryon D. Rodrigues 1999 , Rodrigues, Aryon D. 1997 , de Nantes, Bernardo 1709 , de Queiroz, José Márcio Correia 2008 ). The second, which we may call Chocó, is attested only in a few minuscule wordlists ( Čestmír Loukotka 1963 , Pompeu Sobrinho, Thomas 1939 , Pompeu Sobrinho, Thomaz 1958 ). The third, which we may call Shucurú, is attested only in a few wordlists ( Čestmír Loukotka 1949 , Lapenda, Geraldo Calábria 1962 , Robert E. Meader 1978 ). Whatever the meagre data of Chocó and Shukurú tell us, it does not support any constellation of Chocó, Shukurú or Kipeá-Dzubukuá being the same language or the same family ( Loukotka, Čestmír 1955 , Čestmír Loukotka 1968 ). The Chocó lived in Alagoas when first mentioned in the literature, whereas no variety of Kipeá-Dzubukuá or Shucurú is attested in Alagoas before the 20th century ( Hohenthal, Jr., W. D. 1954 , Loukotka, Čestmír 1955 , Curt Nimuendajú 1981 ). The descendants of Chocó, Shucurú, Kipeá-Dzubukuá (and other tribes) were subsequently missionized together in various places and constellations, to the end that, at present, they could be considered one group from an ethnographic perspective ( Carneiro Martins, Silvia Aguiar 2003 ) who speak only Portuguese and with Alagoas as one of its locations. However, E16/E17/E18/E19 entries are supposed to reflect languages rather than ethnicities, so the information in the Karirí-Xocó [kzw] and Xukurú [xoo] entries are, at best, anachronistic. Ideally, a new entry should be created for Chocó (it was probably extinct by 1951, but, except for rememberers, all three were probably extinct by 1951), and the names and locations of the Kipeá-Dzubukuá [kzw] and Xukurú [xoo] entries should be changed to reflect the names and locations of the (past) speakers of the language of the entry, rather than the names and locations used for descendants who do not speak the language of the entry. See also: Xukurú [xoo], Karirí-Xocó [kzw].


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