Hussain, Sarmad 1997

Hussain, Sarmad. 1997. Phonetic Correlates of Lexical Stress in Urdu. Northwestern University dissertation. (167pp.)

  author          = {Hussain, Sarmad},
  pages           = {167},
  school          = {Northwestern University},
  title           = {Phonetic Correlates of Lexical Stress in Urdu},
  year            = {1997},
  abstract        = {This work investigated how phonetic properties of Urdu segments change with stress and whether these phonetic changes support the theories that predict the effects of stress. The stimuli consisted of pairs of bi- or tri-syllabic words which contained the target segments in the initial syllables. The first syllable in each pair was stressed in one word and unstressed in the other. However, the segmental context for the target segment was held as similar as possible, within the constraints of having familiar real words. Ten block-randomized repetitions of each word, embedded in a carrier phrase, were recorded by seven native speakers of Urdu. Acoustic analysis of the recordings was done using xwaves. Duration, fundamental frequency (F0), relative intensity, and first two formant frequencies were measured for the six long and three short vowels of Urdu. In addition, closure duration, voicing during closure and post-release aspiration were measured for the sixteen stops in Urdu, in both onset and coda positions. The results indicated a longer duration and lower F0 (due to the alignment of a low tone) for stressed vowels. Also, high vowels got less intense and low vowels got more intense with stress. However, individual speaker data on intensity showed a lot of variation. Also, the quality of the vowels changed with stress as unstressed vowels underwent more contextual assimilation than stressed vowels. Results from stops show that the closure, voicing during closure and aspiration of aspirated (and not voiceless and voiced) onset stops increased with stress. The closure of voiceless, voiced and breathy coda stops and voicing during closure of voiced coda stops also increased with stress. The duration of closure of aspirated coda stops decreased with stress. Though many of these stress-related changes in Urdu support the Sonority Expansion or Hyperarticulation theories, there are still some data which these theories cannot explain. It is proposed that these theories should be extended to account for the variation caused by articulatory (or perceptual) constraints.},
  bestfn          = {eurasia\hussain_urdu1997_o.pdf},
  besttxt         = {ptxt2\eurasia\hussain_urdu1997_o.txt},
  cfn             = {eurasia\hussain_urdu1997_o.pdf},
  degree          = {PhD},
  delivered       = {eurasia\hussain_urdu1997_o.pdf},
  digital_formats = {PDF 5.68Mb image-only PDF},
  fn              = {eurasia\hussain_correlates1997.pdf, eurasia\hussain_correlates1997_o.pdf, eurasia\hussain_urdu1997_o.pdf},
  hhtype          = {phonology},
  inlg            = {English [eng]},
  isbn            = {9780591653144},
  lgcode          = {Urdu [urd]},
  macro_area      = {Eurasia},
  oclc            = {72088755},
  source          = {DAI-A 58/11, p. 4253, May 1998},
  src             = {hh},
  subject         = {LANGUAGE, LINGUISTICS (0290)},
  umi_id          = {9814230}

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