Language: Karipuna do Amapa


This entry has been retired and is featured here only for bookkeeping purposes. Either the entry has been replaced with one or more more accurate entries or it has been retired because it was based on a misunderstanding to begin with.

A major confusion in E16/E17/E18/E19 is with the languages called Karipuna. In addition to Karipuna Creole French [kmv] (an entry which is correct), there are two entries, both classified as Tupi-Guarani, Subgroup VI:

Karipúna [kgm] Karipuna [kuq]
Region: Amapá, on French Guiana border Rondônia, Acre, banks of Jaru, Jamery, Urupa, Cabecciras, Candeias, and Jaciparana rivers.
Classification: Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Subgroup VI Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Subgroup VI
Alternate names: Karipúna do Amapá, Karipúna do Uaçá Caripuna, Jau-Navo, Juanauo, Kagwahiva, Karipuná de Rondônia, Karipuná do Guaporé
Population: Extinct. 14 (2004 ISA).
Language use: Shifted to Karipúna Creole French [kmv]. Some may also use Tenharim [pah]

Early references to the Karipuna (or similar names) of Amapá refer to a variety of Palikúr [plu] ( Dominique Gallois and Carlos Alberto Ricardo 1983 :62 ). The language of the Karipuna of Amapá in this sense is attested with a short wordlist, and is indeed a Palikúr [plu] variety ( Čestmír Loukotka 1963 ). More recent references to the Karipuna of Amapá refer to an immigrant group whose original language is not attested, but, is reported to have been Nheengatu [yrl] ( Expedito Arnaud 1969 , Dominique Gallois and Carlos Alberto Ricardo 1983 :62 ). Except for the classification and the fact that Nheengatu [yrl] already has an entry, the Karipúna [kgm] entry is consistent with referring to the more recent Karipuna of Amapá. Thus, whatever it refers to, the same language already has a different E16/E17/E18/E19 entry, either Palikur [plu] or Nheengatu [yrl].

Until the 1950s ( Mauro Leonel 1995 :40-45 , 199-213) the only language called Karipuna in the Madeira-Guaporé region was a Panoan language also known as Jau-Navo, amply attested in wordlists ( Rondon, Cándido M. S. and de Faria, João Barbosa 1948 , de Créqui-Montfort, G. and Paul Rivet 1913 , von Martius, Carl Friedrich Philip 1867 , Hanke, Wanda 1949 ). However, the name started to be applied to groups of hostile indians at the Mutumparaná and Jaciparaná which were contacted in the 1950-1970s ( Klaus-Peter Kästner 2005 :104 ) and turned out to speak a Tupi-Guarani language of Subgroup VI ( Mello, Antônio Augusto Souza 2000 , Monserrat, Ruth Fonini 2000 , Betts, LaVera 2012 ), which we may call Kawahib. FUNAI frivolously used the name Karipuna for this Kawahib group ( Mauro Leonel 1995 :45 ), encouraging the confusion we now observe. The Karipuna [kuq] entry mixes information from the Panoan Karipuna (e.g., the name Jau-Navo) and the Kawahib Karipuna (e.g., the classification). The Panoan Karipuna is otherwise missing from E16/E17/E18/E19 whereas the Kawahib Karipuna speak the same language as the language of several other entries. See also: Karipúna Creole French [kmv], Palikúr [plu], Nhengatu [yrl], Tenharim [pah], Karipúna [kuq].


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